Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team’s court under organized rules. The complete set of rules are extensive, but play essentially proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a ‘rally’ by serving the ball (tossing or releasing it and then hitting it with a hand or arm), from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, and into the receiving team’s court. The receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively. Typically, the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court.
The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either (1): a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent’s court and winning the rally; or (2): a team commits a fault and loses the rally. The team that wins the rally is awarded a point and serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include:
- causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents’ court or without first passing over the net;
- catching and throwing the ball;
- double hit: two consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same player;
- four consecutive contacts with the ball made by the same team;
- net foul: touching the net during play;
- foot fault: the foot crosses over the boundary line when serving.
The ball is usually played with the hands or arms, but players can legally strike or push (short contact) the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking (because these plays are made above the top of the net, the vertical jump is an athletic skill emphasized in the sport) as well as passing, setting, and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures.
- The Ball
A volleyball is a ball used to play indoor volleyball, beach volleyball, or other less common variations of the sport. Volleyballs are round and traditionally consist of eighteen nearly rectangular panels of synthetic or genuine leather, arranged in six identical sections of three panels each, wrapped around a bladder. A valve permits the internal air pressure to be adjusted. In a break from the traditional construction, in 2008, the FIVB adopted as its official indoor ball a new Mikasa with dimples and only eight panels for a softer touch and truer flight.
These balls are a combination of two or three different colors, or they can be completely white. There are two different styles: youth and adult.
- The youth volleyball ball for indoor use is 63 to 65-centimeters or 25 to 26-inches in circumference. They weigh 9.2 to 9.9 ounces, or 260-280-grams. Internal pressure of these balls are set at 4.3 psi or 0.30-kgf-per-centimeter-squared.
- The adult indoor volleyball ball is 65 to 67-centimeters or 25.5 to 26.5-inches in circumference. They weigh 9.2 to 9.9-ounces or 260 to 280-grams. They have a psi of 4.3 to 4.6, or 0.3 to 0.325-kgf-per-centimeter-squared.
There is not a lot of difference between the two when looking at the numbers, but for different play styles of the adult versus the youth, they are notable. Remember that youths have to be able to palm the ball and force it over the net. Having a slightly smaller size, with a lower psi can considerably aid them in doing this. You’ll notice that both balls are very streamlined and light-weight in characteristic. Again, this is for ease of movement of the balls during a high-energy game where timing is critical.
Indoor court shoes with a non-marking sole are mandatory for use of gym facilities. This is both to protect the floor and for your safety. Shore worn outdoors can pick up material that may cause you to slip and injure yourself, or others. If you have worn your court shoe outside, you should clean the soles before using them. Only clean non-marking gymnasium footwear to be worn; Hiking-style footwear is not permitted.